As the World Bank’s Country Director for Indonesia Rodrigo A. Chaves has noted, the “middle class holds the key to unlocking the potential of Indonesia.  Since its higher education sector is relatively underdeveloped, it doesn’t have institutions of global reputation, nor does it have capacity to provide for its own domestic student population, let alone foreign students. Together they enrolled approximately 11 percent of the total student population in 2013. The academic calendar at universities typically runs from August or September to May or June, divided into two semesters. Overall, there are 34 provinces which are further subdivided into thousands of districts, subdistricts, cities, and more than 75,000 villages. They are typically two years (four semesters) in length and involve 36 to 50 credit units, as well as the preparation of a thesis or completion of a graduation project. In the mid 2000s Islamic factions and parties pushed through a national education bill which required schools to provide students with religious teaching according to their faiths.  Consider that more than 40 percent of Indonesia’s population is under the age of 25, with approximately 27 percent under the age of 15; the median age is approximately 30.5 years. New campuses of the University of Indonesia near Jakarta, and Hasanuddin University near Makassar, for example, were built far from their previous locations at the center of these cities, to curb mobilization and marching. The country has much lower literacy levels than those of other Southeast Asian nations. Indonesian HEIs use a number of different grading scales, most of which are variations of the U.S.-style A to B scale, either with or without “+” and “-” designations. Indonesia has made great strides in terms of improving its education system during the Reformasi era of democratisation since 1998. However, 60 percent of all students enroll in just 10 popular disciplines, including accounting, computer engineering, marketing, motor vehicle engineering, multimedia, or office administration. In many remote areas of the Outer Islands, in particular, there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers, and some villages have school buildings but no teachers, books, or supplies. Curricula are mostly specialized apart from some mandatory general education subjects, such as religion, national history, and Pancasila (Indonesian state philosophy). Nearly half of Indonesian students surveyed in 2017 indicated that they would require financial assistance in order to study abroad. Hindu and Buddhist students, who don’t have their own religious teachers in the school, read their religious texts while sitting in the same rooms as their Muslim classmates reciting the Koran.”, Reasons for the Rise of Islamism in Indonesian Public Schools, Yenni Kwok wrote in the New York Times, ““The rise in such practices has affected teachers too. Until the mid-2000s, Indonesia’s teachers were able to practice with merely a diploma in education. Study and training programs in disciplines like dentistry and veterinary medicine are organized similarly. This trend has coincided with a 611 percent increase in Indonesian degree students studying in Saudi Arabia, from 254 in 2010 to 1,806 in 2017. ^+^, “But as the government loosens up, allowing students and teachers to wear the head veil — should they choose to do so — has become a mark of religious difference even within schools. If no religious instruction is available in accordance with the student’s faith, the student has the right to be excused from religious instruction. Academies are dedicated to vocational education at the undergraduate level and can be public or private. However, about 52 percent of all non-teacher-training students enrolled in higher education were social sciences majors in the 2008–9 academic year, while only 3 percent majored in laboratory-intensive fields of study, largely because universities prefer to offer social science courses that do not require expensive laboratories and equipment. Vocational high schools offer more than 140 different specializations, including fields like agri-business technology, allied health, business and management, information and communication technologies, and engineering technology. Public expenditures have since grown drastically, nearly tripling since the early 2000s. Poorly trained university instructors are another issue of concern. In 2005 the central government launched a massive plan known in English as the School Operation Fund that pumped billions of rupiah directly into schools. This is especially so, given the expected rise of disposable incomes in Indonesia.  The number of degree-seeking students reported by UIS increased from 5,704 in 2007 to 8,038 in 2016, before leveling off to 5,823 students in 2017. Indonesia is presently the 19th-largest sending country of international students to the United States. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications. Unlike state universities, private institutions have budgets that are almost entirely tuition-driven. When the Dutch returned in force, BPTRI dispersed its various schools to other parts of Java. But the Southeast Asian country is simultaneously a diverse, complex, and multicultural nation of more than 300 ethnic groups that speak hundreds of different languages. Outbound student flows from Indonesia are growing, but they are still relatively modest. Private universities are generally operated by foundations. The government has promoted education at all levels. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. In light of such bottlenecks and quality shortcomings, growing numbers of students from middle-income households will look overseas to obtain their degree. The Dutch established Nood Universiteit (Emergency University) in Jakarta in 1946, and the following year changed its name to Universiteit van Indonesië (UVI), or University of Indonesia. Education in Indonesia is compulsory and provided free of charge at public schools from grades one to nine (six years of elementary education and three years of junior secondary education). The percentage of people who have access to electricity has jumped from 55 percent in 1993 to 98 percent in 2016. A common grading scale variation is shown below. They typically offer undergraduate programs in a particular area of study leading up to a four-year diploma (Diploma VI) or bachelor’s degree, although some institutions also offer graduate programs. High school enrolment rate : Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Common quality problems include inadequate management structures, funding, facilities, and teaching materials, as well as lackluster research output. In 2017, merely 65 institutions (less than 2 percent of all HEIs) obtained the highest level of accreditation in Indonesia, while quality at the remaining institutions varied—some HEIs had no accredited programs at all. Legislation enacted in the early 2000s not only introduced free and mandatory basic education and the commitment to spend 20 percent of the national budget on education, but also gave schools throughout Indonesia much greater administrative autonomy. Education in Indonesia is compulsory and provided free of charge at public schools from grades one to nine (six years of elementary education and three years of junior secondary education). Most recently, enrollments have declined by some 1 percent to 8,650 in 2017/18, a drop coinciding with the Trump administration’s travel ban, which restricts entry to the U.S. for citizens from seven countries—five of which are majority Muslim. Also, increasing tuition costs in the U.S. and the recent depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah against the U.S. dollar make it more costly for Indonesians to study Stateside. It’s currently planned that students will also earn a series of formal vocational training certificates during the course of their studies, so that graduates and school dropouts alike can obtain qualifications of greater value in the labor market. This includes support to improve quality of education and skills of the population and promoting job-creating growth and ample access to social protection….”. Students may transfer from Diploma programs into academic Sarjana programs and at some institutions may be admitted into S2 Magister programs in related disciplines. Every student who belongs to any of the five recognized religions (Islam, Catholic Christianity, Protestant Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism) is entitled to religious instruction in his or her religion (although a minimum number of students is required before instruction in a particular religion is provided). Outbound mobility is also bound to be boosted by growing intraregional initiatives and scholarship programs designed to facilitate academic exchange and labor mobility, such as the ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF) or the ASEAN International Mobility for Students (AIMS) program. **, Indonesian institutions of higher education offer a wide range of programs. In 2013, Indonesia ranked last in a landmark education report that measured literacy, test results, graduation rates and other key benchmarks in 50 nations. With a population of 264 million, Indonesia is known for being the 4th most populated country in the … Programs are a minimum of three years, but usually take longer to complete. In order to enhance the teachers’ knowledge of other religions, the general competence aims for the other religions are cited in the introduction to the curricula for every religion. But … In Indonesia educations begins with six years of elementary school (sekolah dasar, SD) followed by three years of middle school (sekolah menengah pertama, SMP) followed by three years of high school (sekolah menengah atas, SMA) The system is supervised by the Ministry of National Education (which is respons… It is one of … These include a constitutional mandate to spend 20 percent of the national budget on education, decentralizing some functions of the education sector to the district and school level, and implementing the Teacher Law in 2005. In practice, many elementary teachers held only a secondary school credential. WITH roughly 55m students, 3m teachers and more than 236,000 schools in 500 districts, Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest education system. Now, Jakarta is a huge, modern city. About 15 percent of all schools in Indonesia were sectarian institutions in 2014; the vast majority (300,000) were Islamic institutions under MORA, compared with less than 1,000 schools affiliated to other religions like Buddhism, Christianity, or Hinduism. At first, only private HEIs were required to have their programs accredited. Diploma programs are offered in vocational fields at a variety of institutions. [Source: Library of Congress *], The character of Indonesia’s education system reflects the country’s diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a population that is young (median age 27.6 years) and growing (at an estimated annual rate of about 1.1 percent) in 2009. These schools teach the standard national curriculum in addition to religious studies. Special education schools, for the physically and mentally disabled, numbered 1,686, with 73,322 students and 18,047 teachers. There may not be much incentive to obtain a tertiary degree—unemployment rates are highest among university-educated Indonesians. Credentials awarded include the Magister Sains, (Master of Science), Magister Teknik (Master of Technology), or Magister Humaniora (Master of Humanities), and so on. They made Indonesians obey laws they did not like, and after many years- in Aug 17, 1945- they declared independence from the Netherlands. For example, Indonesian children who lack access to physical schools can complete junior high school in open “radio schools.” In higher education, distance education was pioneered by the public Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka), which evolved from a small fringe university when it was founded in 1984 to a mega-university of more than 500,000 students today. One challenge is that curricula and textbooks are designed nationally in Jakarta, but teachers are trained locally in the regions. The success rate in upgrading teachers’ qualifications was greater in the school system than in higher education. [Source: Library of Congress *]. About 87 percent of Indonesia’s population is Sunni Muslim, making Indonesia the largest majority Muslim country in the world. Just 200,000 out of 1.25 million Indonesian elementary school teachers held a university degree in 2006, while the majority of them had a senior secondary school diploma or a Diploma 2. However, public education spending as a percentage of GDP has stagnated over the past decade and remains well below recommended levels for emerging economies (at 3.6 percent of GDP in 2015). In fact, a recent survey conducted by AFS Intercultural Programs found that 81 percent of 13- to 18-year-olds in Indonesia had considered study abroad. However, overall education spending in Indonesia is still fairly low by regional standards. The top three destination countries for Indonesian degree-seeking students enrolled overseas are Australia, the U.S., and Malaysia. There were 2,308 of these institutions throughout the archipelago in 2018, the majority of them smaller, specialized private schools. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. 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December 26, 2020